35th Annual Hands-On Relay School

Safety and Human Performance
Jim Cornett, Salt River Project

Kevin Damron, Avista
This lecture will review fundamental principles of distribution system protection, including IEEE device designations, fault current calculations, coordination of overcurrent protection, and reclosing schemes.

Transmission Protection Overview Lecture
Roy Moxley, Siemens
This lecture will review fundamental principles of transmission line protection.  Concepts of distance protection, directional overcurrent, line differential, and communication assisted tripping will be discussed.

Generation Protection Overview Lecture
Rogerio Scharlach, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
This lecture will review fundamental principles of generation protection theory and application with a focus on industry standards and best practices.

Brent Carper, 3AC Engineering
Technicians Basic Math Review
Ron Alexander, Bonneville Power Administration

Mho Testing Techniques & Math      Notes
Rodger Allen, ACS Professional Staffing

Lessons Learned from the Field
Paul Luther, Puget Sound Energy


Switching Incident Lessons Learned
Ty Ehrman & Bob Lemon, Grant County PUD
On October 8, 2015, a generator circuit breaker at Priest Rapids dam experienced a failure due to mis-operation, causing arcing and a release of heated insulating gas, injuring 6 employees with severe burns.  The protection system was not designed with this failure mode in mind.  The event, its causes and protection system effects will be covered during this presentation.
Ukrainian Power System Cyber Attack
Roger Alexander, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
Covers the coordinated cyber attack on the Ukrainian power grid as well as lessons learned.  The first publicly documented cyber attack on power system assets put 225,000 customers in the dark for several hours.  Is this the way it's going to be from now on?  What can we do to protect our assets?
The Hands-On Relay School offers twelve lectures on a wide range of topics relevant to the trade.  Each lecture is one hour long and given a total of three times.  Students can attend up to six lectures of their choosing.

Basic Math Review for Relay Techs
Bill Unbehaun, Tacoma Power
Forgot some of that high school math but embarrassed to ask?  This is a no-guilt refresher on some important bits of math and geometry that should be at our fingertips.  We'll cover geometry, arithmetic, Cartesian planes, trigonometry, and algebra as they're used in electrical theory and relay work at the "hands-On" level.

Bus Protection
Robert Smallwood, Portland General Electric
This lecture will cover various types of bus protection relaying, including low/high impedance, summation, and partial bus differential schemes.  Less common blocking and optical detection schemes are covered.  The requirements for setting relays in a bus differential scheme will be described.

Communication Aided Tripping
Jared Mraz & Matt Horvath, POWER Engineers
When speed is a necessity for transmission line protection, communication between line terminals can provide high speed clearing of faults.  Topics include communication aided protection schemes and the equipment that makes it possible.

CT Testing      Normal CT Load      Wye Circuit      Delta Circuit
Steve Laslo, Bonneville Power Administration
Opening an energized current transformer (CT) secondary can result in very hazardous voltages and possible damage tot he CT.  This is a discussion of how a CT can generate high voltages, some video demonstrations of an open CT secondary, and suggested work practices to safely work on current transformer secondaries.

Fault Analysis for Relay Technicians
Ken Workman, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
Event reports continue to be an invaluable feature in microprocessor-based relays. Some events are relatively straightforward to analyze, and others require experience and considerable knowledge of the power system and protective relay system in order to find the root cause. This session provides an outline of the event analysis process, several real-world event examples, time to evaluate them, and solutions.

Phasor Diagrams
Ron Alexander, Bonneville Power Administration
Phasors are the universal language of system protection technicians and engineers. This lecture emphasizes the need for a basic knowledge of phasor diagrams and their use in understanding the power system. Topics include load flow phasor analysis, fault phasor analysis, and using phasors to determine the phase angle across delta-wye transformers banks.

Series Capacitors
Michael Hulse, Bonneville Power Administration
What are series capacitors and why do we use them in electrical transmission systems?  This lecture covers the theory of how these devices work, the benefits, and the systems/schemes employed to protect them.

Substation Commissioning
Paul Luther, Puget Sound Energy
A discussion on substation commissioning, from small device repair to full green field substation projects. The focus will be on developing a plan to completely commission equipment with a check and balance system that gives the technician confidence that the job was done correctly. Example checklists and worksheets will be handed out to students.

Symmetrical Components 1
Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
Basic principles of symmetrical components with explanation of phasors, per unit system, and symmetrical component equations using sequence networks. Suggested prerequisite for Symmetrical Component 2 class.

Symmetrical Components 2

Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
Analysis of power system elements with symmetrical components sequence network and network connections for each power system fault type. Samples of protective relay applications using symmetrical component method. Suggest attending Symmetrical Components 1 lecture as a prerequisite.

The X, Y, and Z of Circuit Breaker Control
Brent Carper, 3AC Engineering
Circuit breakers are required by IEEE standard C37.11 to have internal factory wiring and auxiliary relays to perform functions such as anti-pumping, close seal-in, trip-free, and permissive control.  The schematic and internal wiring within the circuit breaker to accomplish these functions can be confusing.  This lecture will explain the X/Y/LC/69 schemes and other aspects of breaker control using actual breaker schematic examples and animated logic, and a break simulator will be used to demonstrate seal-in and anti-pumping.

Transformer Protection
Scott Cooper, OMICRON Energy
An overview of power transformer protection practices.  Emphasis is placed on solutions to the challenges of effective protection, including transformation ratio, transformer connection, current transformer connections, zero sequence current elimination, inrush, and over excitation.  Analysis of differential relay operation for various types of faults and fault locations is discussed.


IP Based Data Communication Networks      Day in the Life of a Packet
Joe Andres, Bonneville Power Administration
Topics covered are the OSI model, hubs, switches, and routers.  The students will trace a packet's journey across a local and wide area network.

RS-232 Standard, Modems, and PSTN Connectivity      Relay School Labs
Karin Butler & Chris Martin, Bonneville Power Administration
This class will cover both the RS-232 standard used in relay communications and modems used on Public Switched Telephone Networks.  In the RS-232 section, students will learn about the standard, handshaking, and basic troubleshooting techniques.  Students are encouraged to bring their own RS-232 breakout box if they have one available.  in the modems section, students will learn about the Hayes command set, initialization strings, and flow control modem troubleshooting.  There will be a demonstration of telephone connectivity via a line sharing switch and polling controller.  
Please note: Includes hands-on exercises requiring students to bring their own laptop PC.

Communications History and Basic Principles
Tim Walker, OMICRON Energy
This lecture will review the history and basic principles of communications applied for protection automation and control.  It discusses the fundamentals, applications, and benefits of IEC 61850, the standard for communication networks and systems for power utility automation, in a combination of theoretical and demonstration sessions.  Commissioning and testing of digital substations using IEC 61850 is discussed with a review of the testing tool's requirements.

Power Line Carrier
Mike O'Neal, RFL Electronic, Inc.
The course will cover the basics of the power line carrier.  Applications and theory will be introduced.  Typical channel elements will be discussed, including transmitters/receivers, hybrids, line tuners, line traps, instrumentation, and transmission line characteristics at RF frequencies.  A basic channel performance exercise will bring all the information together in a practical, real-world example.

IRIG Timecode and Relays
Larry Gross & Rick Turner, Relay Application Innovation
Learn the basics of how IRIG timecodes are used with relays.  Discussion will include why it is important, applications, functional testing, and troubleshooting.

Relay Communication Schemes
Larry Gross & Rick Turner, Relay Application Innovation
Learn how a POTT, DCB, current differential, and some variations on these work in general and relative to their communication media.  Discussion will include functional testing and troubleshooting using event reports.

Cyber Attacks
Dr. Murty Yalla, Beckwith Electric
Cyber attacks on an electric power system can have a devastating impact and cause widespread power outages as evident from the December 2015 cyber attack on a Ukrainian electric power distribution system.  Securing the electric power system from cyber attacks is of national importance, and in North America, NERC is spearheading the effort in developing and enforcing Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) standards for the Bulk Electric System (BES).

The presentation discusses cybersecurity basics including passwords, access management, authentication, and encryption.  The tutorial also covers latest NERC CIP requirements.  A Brief overview of IEEE standards related to cybersecurity is presented.  A cybersecurity implementation example for IEDs used in electric power distribution protection and control is presented.