35th Annual Hands-On Relay School

Safety Presentation

Distribution Protection Overview Lecture      Paper      Handout
Kevin Damron, Avista
This lecture will review fundamental principles of distribution system protection, including IEEE device designations, fault current calculations, coordination of overcurrent protection, and reclosing schemes.

Transmission Protection Overview Lecture
This lecture will review fundamental principles of transmission line protection.  Concepts of distance protection, directional overcurrent, line differential, and pilot protection schemes will be discussed.

Generation Protection Overview Lecture
Wayne Hartmann & Jon Grooters, Beckwith Electric
This lecture will review fundamental principles of generation protection theory and application with a focus on industry standards and best practices.

Introduction to Protection Basics and Terminology
Brent Carper, 3AC Engineering
Technicians Basic Math Review
Ron Alexander, Bonneville Power Administration

Introduction to relay Coordination Principles
Abdur Rehman, Puget Sound Energy

Lessons Learned from the Field
Paul Luther, Puget Sound Energy


CCVT Transients
Kevin Gowan, Puget Sound Energy
Capacitively-coupled voltage transformers (CCVTs) are often used for transmission potential sensing.  Following a design change, Puget Sound Energy (PSE) began to notice arcing on CCVT secondary circuits during routine switching that was damaging relay and communications equipment and presenting a hazard to substation personnel.  In this presentation Kevin summarizes a study undertaken by PSE to better understand and mitigate the phenomenon using live testing and high-speed data collection.
Protection System Misoperations
Rich Bauer, NERC
NERC and the industry at large have begun to investigate causes of protection system misoperations with the goal of reducing them.  Discussion will cover how NERC collects and aggregates protection system performance information, common causes of misoperations, the initiatives and standards being proposed.
The Hands-On Relay School offers twelve lectures on a wide range of topics relevant to the trade.  Each lecture is one hour long and given a total of three times.  Students can attend up to six lectures of their choosing.

Digital Logic for Protection and Control
Kevin Damron, Avista Utilities
An introduction to digital logic and symbols used for protective relaying.  The class will compare traditional hardwired schematic logic to software-based programmed logic with hands-on classroom exercises converting between the two.

DNP 3.0
An introduction to substation automation and control using Distributed Network Protocol (DNP) 3.0.  Protocol can travel over various communications standards and mediums to facilitate situational awareness and control either locally in the substation or remotely from a control center.

Fault Analysis for Relay Technicians
Ken Workman, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
Event reports continue to be an invaluable feature in microprocessor-based relays. Some events are relatively straightforward to analyze, and others require experience and considerable knowledge of the power system and protective relay system in order to find the root cause. This session provides an outline of the event analysis process, several real-world event examples, time to evaluate them, and solutions.

In-Service Testing
Bryan Focht, Portland General Electric & Paul Luther, Puget Sound Energy
An overview of methods for proving relay current and voltage inputs are accurate upon equipment energization.  Final inspection, relay diagnostics, and recordkeeping with an eye towards NERC compliance are covered.

Mho Testing Techniques & Math 1 & 2
Rodger Allen, ACS Professional Staffing
Learn or re-visit the considerations to take and the math behind selecting the voltages and currents to test the characteristics of phase-to-phase & 3-phase mho distance units effectively and efficiently.  Students participate in phase-to-phase voltage & current calculations.  Relays are tested to demonstrate those calculations.  Students will also learn and practice selecting voltages and currents to test phase-to-=phase mho distance elements without creating an undesirable phase-to-ground mho distance element operation.  This is two 60 minute lectures back-to-back to cover all objectives.

Ron Alexander, Bonneville Power Administration
Phasors are the universal language of system protection technicians and engineers. This lecture emphasizes the need for a basic knowledge of phasor diagrams and their use in understanding the power system. Topics include load flow phasor analysis, fault phasor analysis, and using phasors to determine the phase angle across delta-wye transformers banks.

Symmetrical Components 1
Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
Basic principles of symmetrical components with explanation of phasors, per unit system, and symmetrical component equations using sequence networks. Suggested prerequisite for Symmetrical Component 2 class.

Symmetrical Components 2

Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
Analysis of power system elements with symmetrical components sequence network and network connections for each power system fault type. Samples of protective relay applications using symmetrical component method. Suggest attending Symmetrical Components 1 lecture as a prerequisite.

The X, Y, and Z of Circuit Breaker Control
Brent Carper, 3AC Engineering
Circuit breakers are required by IEEE standard C37.11 to have internal factory wiring and auxiliary relays to perform functions such as anti-pumping, close seal-in, trip-free, and permissive control.  The schematic and internal wiring within the circuit breaker to accomplish these functions can be confusing.  This lecture will explain the X/Y/LC/69 schemes and other aspects of breaker control using actual breaker schematic examples and animated logic, and a break simulator will be used to demonstrate seal-in and anti-pumping.

Transformer Protection
Scott Cooper, OMICRON Energy
An overview of power transformer protection practices.  Emphasis is placed on solutions to the challenges of effective protection, including transformation ratio, transformer connection, current transformer connections, zero sequence current elimination, inrush, and over excitation.  Analysis of differential relay operation for various types of faults and fault locations is discussed.

Two-& Three-Winding Transformer Connections and Circulating Currents
Abdur Rehman and Jason Hall, Puget Sound Energy
This presentation explores common 2- and 3-winding transformer connections and how positive, negative, and zero-sequence currents circulate during phase and ground fault conditions.  Transformer sequence networks and associated symmetrical components are analyzed.


Transmission Line Protection
Brad Heilman, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
Covers transmission-level line protection elements and high-speed communications-aided tripping schemes.  This includes step distance, overcurrent, line current differential, and other more advanced protection elements (out of step blocking/tripping, single pole tripping, etc.)

Remedial Action Schemes (RAS)
Dan Goodrich, Bonneville Power Administration
Topics include what is (and is not) a RAS, their purpose, types of RAS, and their hardware and logic.  This will be a "RAS-101" type course, with time allotted for questions, so no advanced knowledge of RAS is required.

Transformer Portection
Wayne Hartmann, Beckwith Electric
Why do transformers fail?  A review of protection principles and modern technology differences and advantages including analysis tools to view relay operations.  this lecture will include overcurrent, differential, through faults, and CT performance.  we will also cover IEEE C37.91 "Guide for Power Transformer Protection."

Power System Operations
Rich Hydzik, Avista Utilities
What does it take to drive the power system?  Keeping substation voltages within schedule, preventing lines from overloading, and anticipating the next outage can be difficult tasks.  Lecture will cover how system operators control voltage/vars, utilize Automatic Generation Control (AGC) to balance load to generation in real time, and maintain overall stability of the power system.

End-to-End Testing
Chris Gallcher and Greg Sharpes, Avista Utilities
Covers testing of line relays that employ communication aided tripping schemes.  The lecture includes a hands-on lab that simulates testing of communications-aided tripping schemes between two substations.
Please note: Includes hands-on exercises requiring students to bring their own laptop PC, with administrative rights.

Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs)
Galina Antonova, ABB, Inc.
Synchrophasors and phasor measurement units (PMUs): what they are, why they are needed, and how to use them in power systems.  Theory, implementations, installation, and applications will be discussed.  A brief summary of relevant standards will be given.